Native American Culture (BD Shadow)

Native American Culture written with pictures from 'Red Rock'

Broken Promises
Broken Promises

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cover American Holocaust
Read important excerpts from the book. American Holocaust, by David Stannard at above site. Oxford University Press, 1992. (available from

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest
(American Memory, Library of Congress)
This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle.

Ancestral Pueblos (Anasazi)
This page has excellent descriptions of many phases of ancient Pueblo life. Part of the Anasazi Heritage Center Created by the Bureau of Land Management, CO.

Ancient Alaska
Scientists find community that thrived for 1200 years. By Doug O'Harra, Anchorage Daily News, April 8, 2002.

Art History 111 Image Bank
Under "Art of the Americas after 1300:" there are many interesting works of Art by or about Native Americans.

Cabeza de Vaca
Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to describe America from Florida through Arizona. His writings are the oldest written history we have of Native Americans. He set the stage for the Conquest of this continent. This Site describes Cabeza de Vaca's eight year journey based on his own writings. DeVaca's translated narration is available on the Internet, thanks to PBS. That narration, annotated in 4 parts here, is a large part of this presentation. What Vaca privately told two powerful Conquistadors who followed him into North America, Coronado and DeSoto, may never be known.

Chaco Canyon, San Juan Basin, NM
This site, located in the "gallery of southwestern lands" hosted by, has many excellent photographs of the Ancestral Pueblos ruins and a wealth of information.

Chaco Canyon - NASA Archeological Research
The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown by NASA over Chaco Canyon. They detected over 200 miles of a prehistoric roadway system, as well as prehistoric walls, buildings, and agricultural fields. These had not been discerned by the naked eye, aerial photography or color infrared photographs.

Cheyenne River Lakota Nation
TRIBAL HISTORY, WAKPA WASTE OYANKE (The Good River Reservation): Home of the Mnicoujou, Itazipco, Sihasapa, & Oohenumpa bands of the Lakota Nation: "who we are, where we came from, and how our lives are today" by Sebastian (Bronco) LeBeau.

Chickasaw Nation - Our History
A brief overview of Chickasaw history, with links on left to additional information and stories. Official Website of Chickasaw Nation, one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" moved to Indian Territory during the "Great Removal," on what was called the "Trail of Tears."

Chief Seattle's Speech
A copy of the first printing of Chief Seattle's famous speech. Posted by the Arbor Heights Elementary School in Seattle, WA.

Chumash Indians
A short history of the Native people of the Central Coastal California region. From the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural history publication "The Chumash People."

Compact Histories
This site (as of 4/28/01) contains 48 First Nations histories. There is a short paragraph for each on this main page. The Tribal name heading of each paragraph links to a fairly long history of that Nation, pre-1900 for the most part. Much pre-contact and early contact information.

Conquest of America
History for Teens - Hernando Desoto. These pages tell of DeSoto's attempt to conquer North America and find a route to the Pacific. Spanish records described Indians living along our great rivers in large cities; they did not describe Indians riding horses seeking refuge, as Pioneers typically described them. Pioneers saw Indians after Spanish Conquest; Indians had moved away by then. Their Nations had been destroyed by diseases... Spain blamed Native Americans for their failure to colonize. They conceived a prejudice against Indians which others acquired.

Couriers Of The 1680 Pueblo Revolt
From the book Indian Running: Native American History and Tradition by Peter Nabokov ©1981 Peter Nabokov. This story is featured online in the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology of Harvard University, Traditions of Native American Running.

Cultural and Historical Photos
Northern California Indian Development Council Photo Gallery: three galleries of stunning photography with accompanying descriptions. Most photos from early 1900's. Interesting and educational.

Dakota Conflict of 1862
In 1862, when most of America was consumed by the Civil War, fighting broke out between the Dakota and white settlers in Minnesota. This is the story of that uprising. . . . . It is also the story of reconciliation, of forgiveness, and of healing.

De Bry Copper Plate Engravings
Theodore de Bry's images of Native American Engravings by Le MOYNE in 1565 America (pre-pilgrim), developed from drawings and descriptive notes. (Note: On the engravings page, when you click on the "larger image", you get a text description of the activity pictured.)

The following Art Prints are from the De Bry Plates
Johan Theodore de Bry - Conjurerer

Johan Theodore de Bry - Agged Manne

Agged Manne
Johan Theodore de Bry - Chieff Lorde

Chieff Lorde
Johan Theodore de Bry - Weroan or <br> Great Lorde Weroan or
Great Lorde
Buy These Art Prints At
Click on any image for a larger version

Different view of Mt. Rushmore
Quotes from the book “America’s Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World,” byprofessor David E. Stannard.

Edward S. Curtis Gallery
A large gallery of photogravures of the North American Indian by photo historian Edward S. Curtis. Early 1900's. Edward S. Curtis devoted 30 years to photographing and documenting over eighty tribes west of the Mississippi, from the Mexican border to northern Alaska.

Events in THE WEST -- 1890-1900
There are some pretty sad Americn Indian facts in this timeline of events.

Exemplar of Liberty
Native America and the Evolution of Democracy by Bruce E. Johansen & Donald A. Grinde is a very interesting historical research document. American Indian symbols on U.S Great Seal.

Florida Territory during the Seminole Wars, 1792-1859
"Welcome to the most comprehensive web page of information on the 2nd Seminole War anywhere on the internet" states the author who created this excellent site from extensive research. He also offers a CD of his book, and recommends Florida's Seminole Wars, 1817-1858 (The Making of America Series) by Dr. Joe Knetsch .

Flury and Company
Edward Curtis Gallery: more wonderful photogravures of Native Americans by this dedicated man, from the early 1900's.

Great Seal of the U.S.
"the image of the bundle of arrows borrowed from the Iroquois Great Law was used as a symbol of unity."

History of the Cherokee
This site was written by Ken Martin who states: (this) website is a tribute to the strength and determination of our people to survive centuries of trials and oppression." There is early contact information on this site. Remember to check the source.

History of the Oglala Lakota Nation
Cultural anthropologists recognize that the Lakota attained a level of cultural development over a forty-thousand year process that resulted in: . . . . a "must read" . . . .  "This superbly evolved people & their culture came under relentless attack from outside forces during a sixty year period, from 1830 to 1890."

Huron Indian Cemetery Chronology
A brief (historical) chronological overview of the Wyandot Nation of Kansas and the Huron Indian Cemetery by Janith English, Chief, Wyandot Nation of Kansas.

The Iroquois of the Northeast
An excellent set of articles on the Carnegie Musem Web site.

John G. Burnett’s Story
of the Removal of the Cherokees. Private John G. Burnett was under the command of Captain Abraham McClellan’s Company, 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, Mounted Infantry, during the Cherokee Indian Removal, 1838-39. This is the story he told on his 80th birthday, December 11, 1890.

People of the Flint: "We were always here and we will always be here."

Learning History
"However, my teachers never taught me that our country has a Holocaust of its own (actually there are two; one killing 40 to 60,000,000 Africans, and one killing 100,000,000 Native Red Peoples)."

The Long Walk to Bosque Redondo
This page on the Smithsonian Magazine site tells a part of the history of the Dine' that is still b in their memory.

Here is a brief history of The Great Sioux Nation from 1800 to the 1990's.

Muscogee (Creek) History
This is on the Web site of the Muscogee Nation. September (Oto-wo'skuce - a little chestnut) 2003 Tribal Citizenship is 54,809. .

Native Americans and Vegetarianism
This is an article in International Vegetarian Union's History of Vegetarianism Web site, by Rita Laws Ph.D. a Choctaw - Cherokee. She describes the long agricultural history of her Choctaw ancestors before the European invasion.

Oneida Indian Nation
You will find this brief history of the Oneida, from their official site, very educational and interesting.

Oneida Indian Nation Land Claims
Here is the timeline of important dates from "Immemorial" to 1998. 1788 map

Pikuni Timeline
This is the historical timeline of the Blackfeet from the early 1700's to 1979.

Red River War
"This series of military engagements fought between the United States Army and warriors of the Kiowa, Comanche, Southern Cheyenne, and southern Arapaho Indian tribes from June of 1874 into the spring of 1875, began when the federal government defaulted on obligations undertaken to those tribes by the Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867." The "Lost Valley Fight", near Jacksboro, Texas is mentioned in this article.

Seminole Nation: Indian Territory
A short history of the Seminoles in Indian Territory, OK. Links to "History of The Great Seal of The Seminole Nation" and Genealogy resources.

Seminole Tribe of Florida: History
This History is on the Official Seminole Tribe site. All of the Seminole Tribe pages are very good. You will enjoy your visit.

Seminoles of Florida History
This is an excellent "thumbnail history" page, with good pictures, on the Florida Division of Historical Resources site.

Sipapu--The Anasazi Emergence into the Cyber World
A Web site dedicated to the study of the prehistoric Anasazi. In addition to information on the prehistory, there are also interactive reconstructions of their architecture. Sipapu also offers a variety of online research papers, searchable databases, and bibliographic references.

Sisseton-Wahpeton History & Culture
"Excerpt from Ehanna Woyakapi, a history and cultural record commissioned by the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe" shared by Timm (Ondamitag). Found in the May 19, 2001 issue of Canku Ota

Standing Rock Heads of Families by Bands, 1885
A very long list: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Standing Rock Agency, Fort Yates, North Dakota. Roll 5A: Record of Rations Issued 1885. National Archives, Kansas City 1977. No graphics here, but it is long and sometimes "times out." research & webwork: Primeau_website.

Samuel's Memory
Samuel Cloud turned 9 years old on the Trail of Tears. Samuel's Memory is told by his great-great grandson, Michael Rutledge, in his paper Forgiveness in the Age of Forgetfulness. Michael, a citizen of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is an attorney.

NEW Searching for Saponi Town
"Save yourself some trips to the university library. The text of some of the basic historical texts on the Southeastern Siouan are here, along with some original articles by members of this group."

Texas Indians
Texas Indian cultures resource for kids. Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo, Tonkawa, Atakapan, Kickapoo, Cherokee and more. Viewing this page requires a browser capable of displaying frames.

The Thinker: Indian Gaming
An article in the November 1, 1995 issue of the Stanford University student newsletter.

Tradgedy at Wounded Knee
A complete account of the Wounded Knee Massacre, with links to pictures and other educational pages. © 1995 Karen M. Strom

NEW Tuscarora and Six Nations Websites
Links to Tuscarora and Six Nations History - Iroquois Information menu on left side of page. " is not the official website of the Tuscarora Nation of New York."

NEW Virginia's Indians, Past & Present
"This page offers historical information, lesson plans, bibliographies and links to tribal home pages. The Powhatan Indians page provides information for younger readers on the tribe, plus early Colonial history [Jamestown, Raleigh's expeditions]. This information is provided for younger readers who may be researching class projects. You can search this site. An index and sitemap are also available." This page seems to cover ALL the Tribes/Groups/Nations of Virginia and is excellent!

Vnewetv, Our Ancient Home
Vnewetv : (ah-NEE-wih-duh, Ah-nee-WIH-duh, AH-nee-wih-duh, AH-nee-wih-DUH). "No tribe has claimed it. Linguistically, it could belong to any number of language families. Although not in common use by many Native Americans today, it continues to be known among those whom we call Carriers of Tradition, people who know, remember and practice ancient ways." This is an absolutely fascinating essay!

The Walam Olum
The Walam Olum is an excerpt from The Lenâpé and Their Legends, by Samuel G. Brinton. Brinton's Library of Aboriginal Literature number V. Phildelphia, 1885. This is one of the only indigenous pre-contact written texts available from North America. With pictographs, Delaware and English translation.

The Wampum Chronicles:
A Website of Mohawk History This is a beautiful, as well as an excellent site. The author, Akiatonharonkwen, says this "represents independent research into Mohawk history. It is based on historical documentation, secondary sources, and Mohawk oral tradition."

What Happened To The Indians?
A brief description with excellent links to more detailed information.

Wounded Knee, South Dakota
A page with a map and a comment in Places in The West, a site. See also Big Foot

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Native American Culture site created January 1, 2000.

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